Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection was written from material developed by the author over a number of years of teaching courses in the Oak Ridge Res-. Statistics The Statistical World of Atoms and Radiation. Radioactive Disintegration—Exponential Decay Radioactive. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that.

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Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the. James E. Turner Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection Third, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition BICENTENNIAL WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. A PREREQUISITE for any serious involvement in radiobiology or radiation protection is a sound understanding of the physics determining the emission of.

Chapters include problem sets with partial answers and extensive tables and graphs for continued use as a reference work. This completely revised and enlarged third edition includes thorough updates of the material, including the latest recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP. In addition to extensive research and teaching both in the U. Turner has served on the editorial staffs of several professional journals, including Health Physics and Radiation Research, and has been active in a number of scientific organizations.

Turner has published widely in radiation physics and dosimetry and also on the chemical toxicity of metal ions. He is the author of three textbooks. Table of contents 1.

About Atomic Physics and Radiation 2. Atomic Structure and Atomic Radiation 3.

The Nucleus and Nuclear Radiation 4. Radioactive Decay 5. Interaction of Heavy Charged Particles with Matter 6. Interaction of Electrons with Matter 7. Phenomena Associated with Charged-Particle Tracks 8.

For example, the decay chain that begins with uranium U ends in lead Pb after forming isotopes, such as uranium U , thorium Th , radium Ra , and radon Rn Decay constant: the fraction of a number of atoms of a radionuclide that disintegrates in a unit of time. The decay constant is inversely proportional to the radioactive half-life.

Decay products or daughter products : the isotopes or elements formed and the particles and high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nuclei of radionuclides during radioactive decay. Also known as "decay chain products" or "progeny" the isotopes and elements. A decay product may be either radioactive or stable.

Decay, radioactive: disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable atom by the release of radiation. Decontamination radioactive : the reduction or removal of radioactive contamination from a structure, object, or person. Decorporation: removal of radioactive isotopes from the body using specific drugs called "decorporation agents. See also enriched uranium.

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Deposition density: the activity of a radionuclide per unit area of ground. Reported as becquerels per square meter or curies per square meter. Detector: A device that is sensitive to radiation and can produce a response signal suitable for measurement or analysis.

A radiation detection instrument. The severity increases as the dose increases. A deterministic effect typically has a threshold below which the effect will not occur. See also stochastic effect , non-stochastic effect. Deuterium : a non-radioactive isotope of the hydrogen atom that contains a neutron in its nucleus in addition to the one proton normally seen in hydrogen.

A deuterium atom is twice as heavy as normal hydrogen. See also tritium. Dirty bomb: a device designed to spread radioactive material by conventional explosives when the bomb explodes. A dirty bomb is much simpler to make than a true nuclear weapon. See also radiological dispersal device. Several different terms describe radiation dose.

Dose coefficient: the factor used to convert radionuclide intake to dose. Usually expressed as dose per unit intake e. Dose equivalent: Animation The product of absorbed dose to a given organ or tissue multiplied by a quality factor also known as a weighting factor [WF] , and then sometimes multiplied by other necessary modifying factors, to account for the potential for a biological effect resulting from the absorbed dose.

It is expressed numerically in rem traditional units or sieverts SI units.

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection Solutions Manual

Dose reconstruction: scientific procedures that assist with 4 activities - managing victims of radiation emergencies, such as providing input to decisions on protection of emergency workers and members of the public or medical treatment of exposed individuals; providing exposed individuals or populations with information about the doses they received; investigating dose-response relationships in epidemiologic studies; determining whether individuals whose disease might have been induced by radiation qualify for compensation.

Dosimetry: assessment by measurement or calculation of radiation dose. The effective dose is assumed to be related to the risk of a radiation-induced cancer or a severe hereditary effect.

It takes into account: 1 the absorbed doses that will be delivered to the separate organs or tissues of the body during the lifetime of an individual due to intakes of radioactive materials; 2 the absorbed doses due to irradiation by external sources; 3 the relative effectiveness of different radiation types in inducing cancers or severe hereditary effects; 4 the susceptibility of individual organs to develop a radiation-related cancer or severe hereditary effect; 5 considerations of the relative importance of fatal and non-fatal effects; and, 6 the average years of life lost from a fatal health effect.

HPS Thus, the effective dose is a quantity calculated by multiplying the equivalent dose received by every significantly irradiated tissue in the body by a respective tissue weighting factor this factor reflects the risk of radiation-induced cancer to that tissue and summing together the individual tissue results to obtain the effective dose.

Such a dose, in theory, carries with it the same risk of cancer as would an equal equivalent dose delivered uniformly to the whole body. See also biological half-life , decay constant , radioactive half-life.

Electromagnetic radiation: A traveling wave motion that results from changing electric and magnetic fields. Types of electromagnetic radiation range from those of short wavelength, like x-rays and gamma rays, through the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions, to radar and radio waves of relatively long wavelengths.

Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom because of the attraction between their negative charge and the positive charge of the nucleus. A stable atom will have as many electrons as it has protons. The number of electrons that orbit an atom determine its chemical properties. See also neutron. Electron volt eV : a unit of energy equivalent to the amount of energy gained by an electron when it passes from a point of low potential to a point one volt higher in potential.

Element: 1 all isotopes of an atom that contain the same number of protons. For example, the element uranium has 92 protons, and the different isotopes of this element may contain to neutrons. Emergency Planning Zone EPZ : the area surrounding a nuclear power plant for which plans required by the NRC have been made in advance to ensure that prompt and effective actions are taken to protect the health and safety of the public in case of an incident.

There is a plume exposure pathway EPZ which extends about 10 miles in radius around a plant. Its primary concern is the exposure of the public to, and the inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination. The ingestion pathway EPZ extends about 50 miles in radius around a plant. Its primary concern is the ingestion of food and liquid that is contaminated by radioactivity. Enriched uranium: uranium in which the proportion of the isotope uranium has been increased by removing uranium mechanically.

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection Solutions Manual

See also depleted uranium. Epidemiology: the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations; and the application of this study to the control of health problems.

Epoetin: a recombinant version of human erythropoietin. Event planned event : Examples: a scheduled nonemergency activity e. See glossary. Exposure radiation : a measure of ionization in air caused by x-rays or gamma rays only. The unit of exposure most often used is the roentgen. See also contamination. Exposure pathway: a route by which a radionuclide or other toxic material can enter the body. The main exposure routes are inhalation , ingestion , absorption through the skin, and entry through a cut or wound in the skin.

Exposure rate: a measure of the ionization produced in air by x-rays or gamma rays per unit of time frequently expressed in roentgens per hour. External irradiation or external exposure : External irradiation occurs when all or part of the body is exposed to penetrating radiation from an external source. During exposure, this radiation can be absorbed by the body or it can pass completely through.

A similar thing occurs during an ordinary chest x-ray. Following external exposure, an individual is not radioactive and can be treated like any other patient.

Gamma or photon radiation exposure from a terrorist nuclear event or radiation dispersal device would make the victim at risk for Acute Radiation Syndrome, depending on the dose received. First receiver: Healthcare workers in a hospital or other facility where victims arrive for treatment.

Atoms and Radiation

First receivers provide medical care at locations remote from the incident and not at the site of a hazardous materials release. Since victims may arrive for treatment still contaminated with hazardous materials, first receivers must also protect themselves by putting on appropriate PPE before delivering medical care. PDF - 1. First responders generally work at or near the incident site.

The three primary fissile materials are uranium, uranium, and plutonium Fission fissioning : the splitting of a nucleus into at least two other nuclei that releases a large amount of energy. Two or three neutrons are usually released during this transformation. See also fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH : a cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. Wikipedia Fractionated exposure: exposure to radiation that occurs in several small acute exposures , rather than continuously as in a chronic exposure.

Fusion: a reaction in which two lighter nuclei unite to form a heavier one, releasing energy in the process. Reactions of this type are responsible for the release of energy in stars or in thermonuclear devices.

These rays have high energy and a short wave-length. All gamma rays emitted from a given isotope have the same energy, a characteristic that enables scientists to identify which gamma emitters are present in a sample. Gamma rays penetrate tissue farther than do beta or alpha particles but leave a lower concentration of ions in their path to potentially cause cell damage.

Gamma rays are very similar to x-rays. Geiger counter: a radiation detection and measuring instrument consisting of a gas-filled tube containing electrodes, between which an electrical voltage but no current flows. When ionizing radiation passes through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes from the negative electrode to the positive electrode and is measured or counted. The number of pulses per second measures the intensity of the radiation field. Geiger counters are the most commonly used portable radiation detection instruments.

Genetic effects: hereditary effects mutations that can be passed on through reproduction because of changes in sperm or ova. See also teratogenic effects , somatic effects. Gray Gy : The new international system SI unit of radiation dose, expressed as absorbed energy per unit mass of tissue.

The SI unit "Gray" has replaced the older "rad" designation. Gray can be used for any type of radiation e. Biological effects of radiation are measured in units of "Sievert" or the older designation "rem". Sievert is calculated as follows: Gray multiplied by the "radiation weighting factor" also known as the "quality factor" associated with a specific type of radiation. See also biological half-life , decay constant , effective half-life , radioactive half-life.

Health physics: a scientific field that focuses on protection of humans and the environment from radiation. Health physics uses physics, biology, chemistry, statistics, and electronic instrumentation to help protect individuals from any damaging effects of radiation.

OSHA U. High-level radioactive waste: the radioactive material resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This can include liquid waste directly produced in reprocessing or any solid material derived from the liquid waste having a sufficient concentration of fission. Other radioactive materials can be designated as high-level waste if they require permanent isolation. This determination is made by the U.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the basis of criteria established in U. See also low-level waste , transuranic waste. IDLH values are considered a maximum level above which only a highly reliable breathing apparatus providing maximum worker protection is permitted. Incidents can include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wild land and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response.

Incorporation: Incorporation refers to the uptake of radioactive materials by body cells, tissues, and target organs such as bone, liver, thyroid, or kidney. However, US Federal Communications Commission material defines ionizing radiation as that with a photon energy greater than 10 eV equivalent to a far ultraviolet wavelength of nanometers.

Thus, X-ray radiation is always ionizing, but only extreme-ultraviolet radiation can be considered ionizing under all definitions. As noted, the biological effect of ionizing radiation on cells somewhat resembles that of a broader spectrum of molecularly damaging radiation, which overlaps ionizing radiation and extends beyond, to somewhat lower energies into all regions of UV and sometimes visible light in some systems such as photosynthetic systems in leaves.

Although DNA is always susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation, the DNA molecule may also be damaged by radiation with enough energy to excite certain molecular bonds to form pyrimidine dimers. This energy may be less than ionizing, but near to it. A good example is ultraviolet spectrum energy which begins at about 3.

Thus, the mid and lower ultraviolet electromagnetic spectrum is damaging to biological tissues as a result of electronic excitation in molecules which falls short of ionization, but produces similar non-thermal effects. To some extent, visible light and also ultraviolet A UVA which is closest to visible energies, have been proven to result in formation of reactive oxygen species in skin, which cause indirect damage since these are electronically excited molecules which can inflict reactive damage, although they do not cause sunburn erythema.

Radiation interaction: gamma rays are represented by wavy lines, charged particles and neutrons by straight lines. The small circles show where ionization occurs. Main articles: Neutron and neutron radiation Neutrons have zero electrical charge and thus often do not directly cause ionization in a single step or interaction with matter. However, fast neutrons will interact with the protons in hydrogen via LET , and this mechanism scatters the nuclei of the materials in the target area, causing direct ionization of the hydrogen atoms.

When neutrons strike the hydrogen nuclei, proton radiation fast protons results. These protons are themselves ionizing because they are of high energy, are charged, and interact with the electrons in matter.In many fields they are functionally identical, differing for terrestrial studies only in origin of the radiation.

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter.

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English Choose a language for shopping. PAGs do not establish an acceptable level of risk for normal, non-emergency conditions, nor do they represent the boundary between safe and unsafe conditions.

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