THE ART OF. EATING WELL. JASMINE AND MELISSA HEMSLEY. To our loved ones and all those who have inspired and supported us. For our clients who. The Art of Eating Well is a cookbook with exciting and inventive recipes that ** For best quality viewing, download this PDF to your Desktop or open in Safari. [DOWNLAD] PDF The Art of Eating Well: Hemsley and Hemsley The Art of Eating Well: Hemsley and Hemsley Celebrated food consultants and food activist.
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Science in the Kitchen and the Art of Eating WellScience in the Kitchen and the Art of Eating Well - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read . Editorial Reviews. Review. "It's hard not to instantly fall in love with sisters Melissa and Jasmine Hemsley. They're absolutely stunning, hilarious, and they cook. The Art of Eating Well: An Italian Cookbook [Pellegrino Artusi] on sirochaterfarm.tk * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The great-grandfather of all Italian.
Indeed, Artusi seems to be as unaware of any impropriety in the juxtaposition of essentially incompatible materials as Peter Sellers, in the guise of Chief Inspector Clouseau, is of the equally unmitigated dangers he is constantly going through, and emerging from, unscathed. Sitting atop this double patrimony of classical Italian gastronomy and its regional diversity - which for centuries had been the exclusive domain of technicians, and the singular privilege of the upper classes who employed them - and faced with the task of redeeming it from French dominance and disseminating it among bourgeois readers whose economic values and ethical expectations he fully shared, Artusi may seem more like a pop orchestra conductor than an avant-garde musician.
In fact, he is an inspired synthesizer: Typically, his recipe for spaghetti alia rustica country-style spaghetti opens with two cases of aversion to garlic: When calling attention to a particularly inappropriate usage of gastronomic terminology, he goes so far as to lift an example from the most sacred of texts: Well, we do the same when we talk about chickens, because the hip should be called the thigh, the thigh should be called the leg, and the leg should be called the tarsus.
Indeed, Artusi's blase attitude results in some extraordinary detours: Focusing on peacocks, whose meat, Artusi assures us, is "excellent for young people," the opportunity to impress his readers with the marvels of this bird's history engrosses him to such a degree that he ends up retaining the secret of how to prepare them for a meal.
Struck by their loveliness, the great military leader issued an edict protecting peacocks from the appetites of less sensitive souls. In Rome, things were dramatically different. A rival of Cicero in the Forum, Quintus Ortensius, found them rather delicious and dined on them with no pangs of conscience.
In the end the peacock lore in Artusi's pages may whet our curiosity, but hardly our appetite. These days it may be hard to appreciate the bravery it took to disregard Alexander's decree, as peacock-meat fanciers are likely to find their favorite fowl plucked, of course frustratingly elusive in supermarket poultry departments.
Thus we might be better off leaving the stuff such culinary dreams nightmares? Artusi alternately teases and flaunts in Science in the Kitchen. Whatever else they may be, his pages read like a humorous collection of practical, naive, and sometimes blasphemous, remarks.
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They are a meticulous compilation of culinary rules, means, and advice, tickled and bedazzled by a panoply of anecdotes and commentaries drawn from history and myth as well as mildly encyclopedic samples of zoological and botanical information. If not a perfect admixture, they form a decidedly irresistible cocktail.
Failing all else, significant episodes from the author's life, or the lives of his friends, are conjured up and elevated to the rank of indispensable digressions.
In the early s,47 some seventy years before Scienza in cucina reached its apotheosis, the gastronome, as he himself recounts, met with a law student from the University of Bologna, whose name would soon become notorious for reasons unrelated to food history.
The meeting, actually no more than a casual encounter, took place at the Trattoria Tre Re The Three Kings , one of the oldest eating and sleeping establishments in town.
To no. Artusi acknowledges the tragic nature of the event, but goes on to suggest that the assassination attempt may have played a significant role in the French monarch's decision to aid the Piedmontese in their war with the Austrians. These and other details can be gleaned from the recipe for maccheroni col pangrattato macaroni with bread crumbs.
It is nontheless astonishing to encounter Artusi's highly inappropriate adoption of an expression commonly used to return to a primary subject after a digression: Given that Orsini's was the first known act of terrorism to be carried out by means of an explosive, would it not have been advisable, on the part of Artusi, to avoid that expression altogether?
Although Artusi is sometimes inadvertently outrageous in his choice of metaphors and more than slightly irreverent in his similes and historical anecdotes, his syntax and lexicon seem to conform to the widespread notion that the Florentine dialect was ideally suited to become the national linguistic standard.
This opinion, which still holds sway in some remote North American colleges and even among a select group of Florentine loafers, fueled many a heated discussion, especially during the post-unification era. In fact, it had received the endorsement of none other than the Milanese Alessandro Manzoni, who made a point of taking up residence in Florence in order to "Tuscanize" his otherwise "Lombardian" novel. Tuscans were generally pleased, though some snobs among them suggested that Count Manzoni's newly acquired language was as good as his French,51 too good, that is, to be in harmony with the content of a seventeenthcentury story having as its background Milan and the lesser branch of Lake Como.
Artusi was not a Florentine either, and had moved to that city for reasons that were not at all linguistically motivated.
Yet he followed. Manzoni's example and became himself plus royaliste que le roi parfois. Yet in his case, the notion of "rinsing one's linguistic clothes in the waters of the Arno River" God forbid! Also, let us not forget that, unlike Manzoni, who spent just enough time in Florence to do the rinsing, Artusi lived there from till the day of his death sixty years later.
From a normative point of view, the so-called questione delta lingua that is, the quest for lexical and stylistic standards of expression , which dates back to the Rinascimento, has been, by arid large, a sterile or marginal affair. Not infrequently, in their creative practice, authors contradict or disregard their own most cherished linguistic beliefs. Resited, for obvious political reasons, during the Risorgimento, it has resurfaced at almost regular intervals, as the manifestation of a misguided, when not decidedly undesired quest for national identity.
As a yardstick to measure what should be used, kept, or dismissed by modern Italian speakers, strict Florentine observance has proven to be a rather ridiculous affair. Artusi himself more than once assumed his readers to be familiar with Florentine terms that were in fact far more obscure to them and maybe even to the Florentines than the regional variations he was determined to extirpate. While there can be no doubt of his appreciation of Bologna and its food, as well as the jovial character and the longevity of its inhabitants - so many are the praises he lavishes on them in Scienza in cucina52 the vernacular and, above all, the gastronomic jargon used in that city is clearly not Artusi's favorite modus loquendi.
They call carpets rags; wine flasks gourds; sweetbreads milks. They say "zigare" for "piangere" to weep , and they call an unsavory, ugly, annoying woman, who would normally be termed a "calia" or a "scamonea" a "sagoma" Italian for silhouette and, figuratively speaking, a funny person.
In their restaurants you find "trefoils" instead of truffles , Florentine style "chops" instead of "steaks" ,. When I first heard the Bolognese mention a crescent, I though they were talking about the moon. Instead they were discussing the schiacciata or focaccia, the ordinary fried dough cake that everybody recognizes and all know how to make.
The only difference is that the Bolognese, to make theirs more tender and digestible, add a little lard when mixing the flour with cool water and salt. To fully appreciate Artusi's idiosyncratic attitude, one should add that while "sagoma" enjoyed, as it does today for that matter, a wide currency in a number of northern Italian regions including Artusi's native Romagna , who has ever heard of "calia" and "scamonea" yes, they can be looked up in a very good dictionary , apart from Artusi, of course, who wants to be more Florentine than his Florentine interlocutors?
As a result, in Scienza in cucina, many lexical items remain whose origin, carefully tagged by phrases such as "in the language of," "as they say in," and so on, have no significant ties to the "language" of Florence.
Artusi's relentless campaign to "purify" gastronomic language of unwarranted francophonic infiltrations looks more like the symptomatic displacement of some discomfort than a legitimate linguistic concern: Why white mountain," writes Artusi to introduce the recipe for salted codfish Mont Blanc style no.
And how could the French, demonstrating their usual boldness when it comes to metaphors, have stretched their name for this dish into Brandade de moruet Brandade, they say derives from brandir, to move, strike, wave a sword, halberd, lance and similar weapons.
In fact, what is being brandished except a paltry wooden mixing spoon? Internationally successful as they had been for so long, these terms were not about to make way for homespun equivalents. Ironically, here too the proof is in the pudding: In the following episode, the wooden puppet is taught a lesson in, let us say, frugality.
Extracting from the jumble of words with which Pinocchio greets him upon returning from jail the very simple truth that Pinocchio is dying of hunger, Geppetto, Pinocchio's "father," takes three pears, which he had intended for himself, and offers them to his starving son: That's too bad! We should get used, from childhood, to eating everything, and liking it; for one never knows what might happen in this curious world. Having gobbled down everything, Pinocchio can finally tap on his stomach and announce cheerfully, "Now I feel better.
The fox too would gladly have nibbled at some-. After the hare, he ordered a special dish of partridges, rabbits, frogs, lizards and other tidbits, but he would not touch anything more. Calandrino, whose gullibility knows no bounds, is told of a country called Bengodi where "vines are tied up with sausages and a goose can be had for a farthing, with a gosling thrown into the bargain.
When these doughy delights are thrown down the slopes, the lucky individual who retrieves "the most of them, the most he eats. These examples bespeak a long-standing preoccupation or fear that had marked peasant life since the Renaissance days of Ruzante,63 and had by Artusi's time become the daily experience of the urban working classes as well.
It was a tragedy of vast proportions that the very limited strength of incipient workers' movements seemed incapable of taming. Hunger, poverty, and injustice were everywhere in the streets of Italy, as well as in Italian literature, of the end of the nineteenth century: All of them, however, are summoned to gestures of exceptional abnegation, in defense of motherland, family, and other "peculiar" values such as honesty and unselfishness. In recent years, the tales of these little heroes of the bourgeoisie, working class, and urban subpoletariat have been frightfully castigated by "smart" critics who have chosen to show how impudently paternalistic and pathetic the author really was, not realizing, perhaps, that De Amicis had already ravaged his own writing, describing it as a kind of "watered-down Manzonianism, bereft of any courageous statements; a perpetual see-sawing between I believe and I don't believe; a desire to make something heard without compromising it with words; a double-edged fear of making misbelievers laugh and upsetting the pious people; a constant catching ot the heart by surprise, when it is the head that should be surprised instead.
Whatever our take on the book, there is enough poverty in it to convince readers of all persuasions that, even when not explicitly referred to, hunger must be close by. Distressing signs of penury are certainly not the exclusive legacy. In accounting for the dissemination of Artusi's book, which was "especially brisk among the bourgeoisie," Professor Camporesi reminds us that the success of the book "could be called class-oriented" and that "Venetian farmers continued to eat their polenta and southern workmen continued to eat olives, fava beans, and tomatoes unaware that things were changing at the tables of other Italians.
Ideas were conceived, proposals examined, projects debated. They ranged from the bizarre to the tragic, and none was found that could resolve the problem. Professor Paolo Mantegazza, a pathologist and Darwinian whose lectures in anthropology and ethnology at the Istituto di Studi Superior! Mantegazza joined in the widespread condemnation of the nutritional poverty of the food habitually consumed by the lower classes "Of all his dishes, the poor city dweller prizes most of all his soup which is meager nourishment even if consumed in large volumes; the poor country dweller lives but for polenta and yellow bread Having traveled extensively in Latin America, and having noticed the prodigious effects of coca leaves chewed by Andean peasants, he declared that their diffusion among the working classes would stymie the onslaught of hunger from which they perpetually suffered.
Mantegazza, who wrote extensively on the subject, beginning with "Sulle virtu igieniche e medicinali della coca" On the medicinal and hygenic virtues of coca; Milan, , and who is likely to have been the first to advocate the introduction of the plant to Europe, made his point with a "symptomatically reassuring" stylistic levity: A second, much more persuasive strategy would be adopted by agencies of the Italian government with the unconditional approval of the reigning monarch.
Four years after the despicable handling of the Sicilian Fasci, thousands of people took to the streets of Milan to protest economic policies that had reduced them to utter destitution: God only knows how many of those who defied the Italian army with stones and sticks had reason to regret the patriotism of their forebears.
After four days of fighting, one hundred people two of them soldiers lay dead in the streets. Four hundred, and fifty people were wounded and eight hundred arrested. A month later King Umberto awarded Bava Beccaris the prestigious Gross of "Grande Ufficiale" for "the great service rendered to civilization and its institutions.
There were other "solutions" to the problem of hunger: Italy did not refrain from trying either. Between and millions of Italians resettled in North or South America, referred to respectively - on the basis of the time it took to get there - as America corta Short America and America longa Long America.
Central to the narrative of Sull'oceano, the theme of emigration, with depictions of the pains and lacerations caused by this massive uprooting, recurs in many other works by De Amicis, including Cuore. Significantly, one of the "monthly tales" punctuating Cuore bears the title "Dagli Appennini alle Ande" From the Appennines to the Andes and tells the story of a child who, all by himself, travels by sea and by land, searching for his mother naturally!
As for colonial expansion, Italy's determination to find riches on the African continent proved to be costly both in term of human lives and international prestige.
Not only did efforts to conquer Ethiopia,. The only good to come of it was the myth it dispelled, that Africa was there for the taking by European powers.
More important, it marked the entry of Ethiopia into the modern community of sovereign and independent nations. A deplorable state of domestic affairs, no doubt. Yet we would have to look very hard to find any trace of it in Pellegrino Artusi's book, which was first printed during a year that saw the official birth of the Italian Socialist Party and the publication of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum, a document of rare significance, focusing on the relation between capital and labor.
While condemning socialism as a measure falling short of the mark and depriving humanity of some "indisputable" rights such as a right to retain private property, no matter how achieved , Rerum novarum calls attention to the "spirit of revolutionary change, which has long been disturbing the nations of the world, [and which] should have passed beyond the sphere of politics and made its influence felt in the cognate sphere of practical economics.
When "either a master or a workman believes himself injured, nothing would be more desirable than that a committee should be appointed, composed of reliable and capable members of the association, whose duty would be, conformably with the rules of the association, to settle the dispute. Among the several purposes of a society, one should be to try to arrange for a continuous supply of work at all times and seasons; as well as to create a fund out of which the members may be effectually helped in their needs, not only in the cases of accident, but also in sickness, old age,.
Rich as it is in historical and scientific information, Scienza in cucina scrupulously avoids any mention of strife and unrest. One could point to temporal and spatial circumstances to justify this avoidance. First, by the year , when the book was undergoing revisions and enlargements, and its dissemination was getting under way, the increase in prices that would drive Milanese workers to despair as well as an increase in real estate values had begun to act as economic boosters as well.
The following decade and a half turned out to be surprisingly enough a period of relative prosperity, which came to a halt with the unfortunate decision to enter the First World War. Second, Artusi conceived and wrote his book in Florence, a wellgoverned and fairly peaceful town, especially when compared to Forlimpopoli and the continuous troubles caused there and throughout Emilia-Romagna by the combined presence of a reactionary Vatican administration and Austrian troops charged with the task of making sure that the equilibrium between church privileges and popular ignorance would not be disturbed.
Artusi's descriptions of Florence are not incongruous with those typically found in the literature of the Grand Tour; nor is his criticism much different from the words of annoyance we occasionally find in E. Forster's A Room with a View and, earlier, in the letters, diaries, and recollections of proven admirers such as William Wetmore Story72 and his fellow Anglo-American expatriates such as Elizabeth and Robert Browning and Margaret Fuller, to mention but a few.
Here there are museums, galleries, institutes for divulgement of the sciences, letters, and art, a beautiful language - the cradle of the Italian language - all things to make your sojourn exquisite, were it not for the continuous nightmare of being preyed upon by degenerate plebs All in all, however, the gastronome and the city, at that particular point in time, were made for each other.
There is a third and possibly more profound explanation for the absence of Italy's immediate and bloodstained history from the pages of Scienza in cucina.
It lies within the boundaries of Artusi's psychological persona, within his ability to smooth away any obstacle, to avoid contradictions and aporias. It is a "perverse" disposition and it makes an absolute winner of the person who can endure it or to whom it comes naturally.
As Artusi's life clearly exemplifies, many advantages result from a deposition that represses even the slightest temptation to admit defeat. In a city with a great and well-sedimented past such as Florence, a laudator temporis acti like Artusi could easily ward off the dangers of a curiosity aimed at the radically new. His principal project was the enjoyment of results that could be achieved by exploiting rationally what was already known or foreseeable, given the "scientific" premises of the materialistic culture he subscribed to.
In a country where culture had too often been confused with the dogmatic voice of Catholic clericalism, the convictions of a moderate "free-thinker" such as Artusi had a chance, if not to win, at least to place or show. In , the Piedmontese, manu militari, took over the eternal city, and for fifty years afterward the reigning popes considered themselves prisoners of the Italian state.
Deo Optimo Maximo carved above the facade of. Against this kind of background, consider how bold the following statement by Artusi must have sounded: Under their "englighted despotism," tolerated, if not loved, by Florentines, the city had become a refuge for the Romagnoli who had managed to escape the oppressive clerical rule under which they were born.
Artusi had moved to Florence in , together with his mother and father, "to deal in fabrics and silk and make himself a Florentine In , his father had participated in the insurrectionary movements of Forlimpopoli, which at the time was one of the Legazioni Pontificie, a territory governed by the church.
In March of that year Buratel was among the signatories of a proclamation extolling "Liberty, Union, and Fatherland. To get a taste of the lukewarm national sentiments that afflicted old Buratel and the parallel insurgence, in him, of a "sound" one-never-knows philosophy, let us pay heed to an.
At that time my father had given me the key to the [family] coffer and I could rummage around in it just as he did. I opened the box with him there and said: Let me now give a sign, at least, of my love for her liberty and independence' I took liras and rushed them over, asking the clerk to register them in my father's name.
Caught unnaware by my sudden action, he could not keep himself from exclaiming: What are you doing? Who knows if things will last like this? Most of all, it alerts us to the kind of rhetoric to which an accomplished bourgeois would unashamedly resort, in order to disguise as an act of patriotism what in reality is nothing but a crude and very profitable financial investment. A male child among seven sisters, Pellegrino grew up in comfort, thanks to his father's successful business as a textile merchant and drug store owner.
Of his early education, Pellegrino writes: And what an awful school it was! What awful teachers, especially for the lower classes!
Real slave drivers. On top of everything else, the one I'm talking about was an acrimonious man whom they called Strapianton [the Well-Rooted]. A rabid papist, he used to make us read the Office of the Virgin every Saturday in Latin even though he himself didn't understand a word of it.
Every so often when a student didn't know his lessons, he would say, 'put your hands out' The immediate cause of the family's move from Romagna to Florence was the brutal assault to which they, and the entire town of Forlimpopoli, had been subjected by the a band of brigands led by the notorious and controversially romantic Stefano Pelloni, better known as the Passatore Ferryman , a nickname he inherited from his father, who was a real passatore on the River Lamone.
Having become an investment banker, and a very wise investor,86 in less than thirteen years, he had earned enough money to be able to dedicate himself more freely to intellectual pursuits and to attending university lectures, which were then public.
Above all, his prosperity and changed family situation having buried his parents and overcome "the nightmare" of his sisters87 enabled him to be inducted into what we might call a self-styled club of permanent bachelorhood, characterized, as the editors of his autobiography have not failed to notice, by "a modest hedonism, an elegant wardrobe, and a real passion for food. Whatever reticence may have hindered him at the beginning, the insistence of the many gentlemen and ladies "of my acquaintance, who honored me with their friendship" led to his resolve to proceed with the project of publishing Scienza in cucina.
The "materials had long been prepared," he writes in a paragraph of the preface, "and served only for my personal use. I thus present it to you now as the simple amateur that I am, certain that I shall not disappoint you, having tried and retried these dishes many times myself.
A bachelor who enjoyed the covenient intimacy of a fair number of female friends, as he somberly but unequivocally declares in his Autobiografia, Artusi basked in the reflected light of acquaintances whom he could admire without losing his own balance, and in the trust he inspired in people seeking either gastronomic advice or ways to improve their assets.
Nothing illustrates his notion of "covenient familiarity" better than his "strategic" retreat from the proximity of a "good oil and fresco painter, judged to be among the best in Florence," whom Artusi had befriended for the purpose of "forming an idea of artistic beauty. Clearly Artusi did not care to include this gentleman artist in the cohort to which Mantegazza and many other members of the upper bourgeoisie and Anglo-Florentine aristocracy contributed social lustre and intellectual vitality.
It is again Artusi who informs us of how well-disposed he could be towards people whom he hardly knew, as in the case of Domenico P. On moving to Florence, "he came over to my bank and introduced himself, imploring me to invest a sum of money, the fruit of his savings.
I could see that he was a gentleman and that he had promise, and what's more, he was proving to be a fellow patriot. So I was happy to help him without charging him anything. Unfortunately, unlike more modern books, Artusi does not include a section describing the kitchen equipment he considered essential. An inventory is possible nonetheless. A paragraph in his recipe for stufatino di petto di vitella di latte coi finocchi stewed breast of milk-fed veal with fennel is, in this respect, quite illuminating: People can say what they like, but copper, when kept clean, is always preferable to iron or earthenware, which get too hot and tend to burn the food cooking in them.
Earthenware cracks and absorbs grease, and after some use starts to give off a bad smell. Then, of course, there are the sieves. Sooner or later, not merely vegetables but also fish and meat are pounded in a mortar and passed through a sieve.
Bizarre as it may sound, a strainer can also do as well as a baking dish. Or you can use a strainer with a wooden ring, and cover the bottom with a sheet of paper. Artusi, for his part, used Amaducci as a guinea pig: Before taking leave, I wanted to meet the two 'martyrs' of the stoves I answered with a military expression: We're here almost all day long working on these stoves and our master drives us crazy with his continuous experiments.
These tasks, as can be gathered from the Amaducci story, were entrusted to his housekeeper and cook, Francesco Ruffilli and Marietta Sabbatini. Artusi's role was exclusively that of a taster, a pronouncer of verdicts, approving or disapproving the domestically re-created gustatory experiences he had been exposed or alerted to in the outside world.
His debt of gratitude for the cares of his two "semper fideles" would neither go unacknowledged nor remain unpaid. In his will, Artusi bequeathed to Marietta "5, lire, free of inheritance tax, the complete bed from my bedroom, including my yellow silk bedcover, and, as a memento, my long gold chain and watch," and to Francesco, "3, lire, likewise free of any inheritance tax or withholding, and, as a memento, my gold watch, which you wind with a little key. In the introduction to that recipe no.
Centuries of exchanges and debates brought about by colliding gastronomic cultures have revealed the symptomatically idealistic nature of the quest and turned it into a "consummation to be wished," perhaps, but not "devoutly. In this respect Artusi is as original as the next person, actually a little more, since he aggressively campaigned in favor of vegetables, upon which the majority of food-minded contemporaries looked with a great deal of suspicion.
Take potatoes, for instance, which had been imported into Europe at the end of the sixteenth century, and for which Italian cooks would not find any systematic use until the nineteenth century was well under way. Indeed, it is only after the validation they receive in Scienza in cucina, Professor Camporesi informs us, that "Gnocchi di papata potato dumplings attain full and stable national citizenship.
Tomatoes give "new fleshy texture and flavor to eclectic, anonymous Romantic cuisine, which was largely an offshoot of French cooking, and had doggedly survived the restoration, without any effort at originality.
Much more than the potato, the tomato is a new disruptive and revolutionary element in 19th-century Italian cuisine. Long neglected in culinary practice and looked upon with suspicion, it had been relegated, at best, to negligible services. He even points out the subtle manifestation of racism inherent in some such prejudices: As in other matters of greater moment, here again the Jews show how they have always had a better nose than the Christians.
Apart from the recipes he drew from the classic cookery books that, contrary to. As late as April , Marchioness Blandina Almerici sends him the recipe for the dambelline little rings she had eaten at the Albergo Tre Re di Bologna, the same establishment where Artusi ate his maccheroni next to an overly vociferous according to Artusi, anyway Felice Orsini see above, page xxxii.
Other feminine presences can be sensed in Scienza in cucina, but protected by a veil of anonymity. Who is the "young, charming Bolognese woman known as la Rondinella [the little swallow]" we are invited to thank for having taught Artusi how to make strichetti alia Bolognese strichetti noodles Bolognese style; recipe 51 , or "the lovely and most gracious Signora Adele [who] wishes me to tell you how to make" sformato della Signora Adele Signora Adele's Gruyere Mold; recipe ?
What he did not learn from his paramours or his friends and their wives, Artusi drew from anonymous or vaguely identified sources such as the family from Santa Maria Capua Vetere who gave him the recipe for maccheroni alia napoletana macaroni Neapolitan style I; recipe 85 or borrowed from the chefs, the innkeepers, the maitres d'hotel with whom he became acquainted at the many prestigious eateries and spas he could easily afford to frequent.
A diligent interlocutor, Artusi never forgets to acknowledge the contributions of his readers, unless of course the adopted recipe has been substantially altered. Such is the case of rossi d'uovo al canape egg-yolk canapes; recipe , which offers Artusi one more opportunity to rail against "stupid and often ridiculous names," but not to thank Adelina Galasso from Breganze, in the county of Vicenza, from whom he may have received the original input.
There are two basic culinary traditions that find, a home in Artusi's book: In both cases he was ahead of his time: He also brought together the culinary tradition prevailing in his native Emilia-Romagna with the dishes he learned to appreciate in Florence, where he pitched his tent for the longest time.
The people of Romagna use butter and animal fat for frying and are partial to pasta dishes and meats, reflecting a tradition that has Celtic origins. Tuscans, on the other hand, use oil for frying and favor soups and vegetables, preferences considered "quintessentially Mediterranean," as we have fallen into the somewhat mysterious habit of saying.
The alloy Artusi created from the two formative elements of Italian culture - the unbridled energy of the Gothic and the delicate "design" of the Renaissance - was unprecedented. Romagna and Tuscany are adjoining regions.
Forlimpopoli and Florence are fewer than a hundred miles apart, and the portion of the Appenine range separating them is not particularly impervious. Yet their basic gastronomic as well as phonetic physiognomies diverge significantly. No one was more conscious of the divergence than Artusi himself, who felt the need to alert anyone interested in his minestra di due colori two-color soup; recipe 31 that "this is a light and delicate soup which in Tuscany is most likely to be appreciated by the ladies.
However, it should not be served in Romagna, that homeland of tagliatelle, where softness to the bite is not to the locals' taste. Even less would they appreciate the pasty texture of tapioca, the very sight of which would, with few exceptions, turn their stomachs.
He creates his recipes for those who can afford them, those who have the means not just of feeding themselves, but of doing so pleasantly and, above all, intelligently. He does not believe in wasting money he was a banker, after all and instructs his readers to be frugal not stingy. By the same token, he Hi. Passion, care, and precision of method will certainly suffice; then, of course, you must choose the finest ingredients as your raw materials, for these will make you shine.
Appealing to upper-middle-class taste requires a strategy that transcends the identification of expensive or neglected ingredients.
While the encoding of gastronomic concerns in the rubric of bourgeois values is inevitable, Artusi's readers may simply be aspiring members of that social class. Reading Scienza in cucina, in other words, can become an effective enticement to upward mobility.
As to those who could exhibit an old membership card, they too had to feel justified in spending, or paying people to spend, so much time in the kitchen. Domestic dinner parties had to become, or pass for, a cultural event, as well as a statement of prosperity.
There are several clues in the text that makes these statements plausible, if not final. The large number of digressions have already been observed. Let me just add here a particularly poignant example, as it brings together scientific competence and Artusi's beloved religio oeconomica: The skin, which is rough and hard, is used to polish wood and ivory, and to line sheaths for knives, swords and the like.
The flesh of this fish is rather ordinary, but when prepared in the following manner it makes a family dish that is not only edible, but more than passingly good. And it is economical, because it is easy to find, at least in Italy. In this way they could not only consult it as frequently as they pleased, but leave it around the house and even show it to their friends which does liii. Similar sentiments, in our day and age, may be elicited by "serious" men's magazines, such as Playboy, where the enjoyment of female nudity is made acceptable by the presence of sophisticated literature.
There are also lexical clues: Which means, let me say one more time, that the reader must be a bourgeois or have bourgeois aspirations.
The seasonal principle also entails the necessity of eating more when the "natural body heat" is stronger, which happens during the winter months, according to medieval doctor Ugo Benzi's Regole della sanita e delta natura del cibi Principles of health and the nature of foods.
This view - the backbone of a centuries-old tradition, profusely exemplified in the Theatrum and Regimen Sanitatis of the Salernitan school - has been totally demolished by modern systems of refrigerated transportation.
Slender in Spring thy diet be, and spare Disease, in Summer, springs from surplus fare. From Autumn fruits be careful to abstain, Lest by mischance they should occasion pain.
But when rapacious winter has come on, Then freely eat till appetite is gone.
Eating well for a healthier you the daily nosh
Health concerns extend to food variety - no single food item is so necessary that it cannot be replaced, nor can it possibly constitute a complete diet by itself - as well as clothing, physical exercise, and, above all, ambience.
Try to live in healthy houses, full of light and well ventilated: Pity those ladies who receive guests in semi-darkness, and in whose homes you stumble into the furniture and know not where to put your hat. Because of this custom of living in dimly lit rooms, of not moving their feet or getting out into the open air, and because their sex tends by nature to drink little wine and rarely eats meat, preferring vegetables and sweets, such ladies are seldom seen with red cheeks, the sign of prosperous health, or with fine complexions all blood and milk.
Their flesh is not firm but flaccid, their faces like vetches that one grows in the dark to adorn tombs on Holy Thursday. Is it any wonder, then, that among women one finds so many hysterics, neurotics and anemics? How far and wide we have traveled from the Romantic idolization of the mansarde or the much-below-standard dwellings of the proletarian and sub-proletarian families that populate Edmondo De Amicis' pages.
It is not just the dining room that undergoes radical changes during the last decades of the nineteenth century. Even more radical innovations take place in the kitchen, where meat grinders make their first appearance and the old wood-burning oven is replaced by the cast iron stove, a modern cooking unit that enables domestic chefs to determine precise cooking times at fairly exact temperatures, and boil, roast, and bake different dishes all at once. From the time of Artusi to the present, Italy has become a country and, by and a large, a culture where the scientific adventure of cooking.
In and of itself, this is not necessarily an indication of progress, yet I would challenge anyone to label the rediscovery of gastronomic rituals as regressive. It would be enough to remember that the great-grandparents of those Italians who, in our own time, are subjecting themselves to one or more dietetic treatments, were likely to have eaten far less than was required for their daily sustenance.
In spite of such major catastrophes as two world wars and the widespread irresponsibility that has characterized the last half century of their political and economic history, vast numbers of Italians have left behind poverty and malnutrition as well as illiteracy to live in a world where the immediate satisfaction of material needs has become not simply a birthright, but an opportunity to reconnect to a legacy of luxury and sophistication dating back to the Renaissance, when Swiss guards wore, as they do now, uniforms designed by none other than Michelangelo.
On this evolutionary trajectory, the figure of Pellegrino Artusi occupies a pivotal place, not too remote from that of Maestro Martino in the late fifteenth century.
Both of them, each in his own cultural and political environment, twisted into a cogent and organic whole threads of intuitions and habits that might have appeared unreconcilable on first sight. Each leaned on the past to usher in the new, reacting positively to difficult circumstances and turning "necessary conditions into desirable qualities," as the old Italian adage goes. As for the inevitable temptation to suggest that Artusi is to Italian gastronomy what Escoffier is to French, heeding it is by far less heretical than many culinary theologians are prepared to admit.
It is true, however, that the analogy is not proportional and, consequently, neither specular nor infinitely reassuring. It may, however, offer some help, if only by way of contrast. The role played in Italy by Artusi's historic persona and the symbolic values attached to it is likely to differ in kind, not just degree, from the role played in France by the celebrated author of La guide culinaire.
To appreciate the difference within the analogy, all we have to. Following in the footsteps of the Larousse gastronomique where Escoffier is treated with all the respect he deserves , The Oxford Companion to Food wholly ignores the name of Pellegrino Artusi and assumes "assafoetida" to be the first possible entry after "artichoke. A much nobler attitude transpires from the behavior of the good people of Forlimpopoli and those of Villeneuve-Loubet in the south of France, where Escoffier first saw light, in , who agreed to "twin" their townships and, to make sure that even the most distracted traveler would not miss the significance of their gesture, set up road signs, each acknowledging the existence of the other.
Whether real or merely wished for, the seductive energy of this "egotisme a deux" in which here and there merge into one aspiration, at a time when public attention seems to be monopolized by a resurgence of inflated patriotism and embarrassing episodes of pseudoheroic behavioral patterns, may be read as an auspicious sign that difference and equanimity can still go hand in hand.
From such humble beginnings, he moved on to supervise the kitchens of the most famous eating establishments of his time, ranging from the Petit Moulin Rouge restaurant in Paris to the Grand Hotel in Monte Carlo, the Savoy and the Carlton in London, and, of course, the Ritz in Paris.
He blossomed into a larger-than-life personality - "le roi des cuisiniers He was a celebrity who often overshadowed the celebrities he served and after whom he occasionally named his dishes: As Chef Gualtiero Marches!
We are at the end of the ninteenth century, when there was no codified Italian cuisine. We are not in France, where at the end of the s August Escoffier published his Guide culinaire, which delved not only into the ambit of French cuisine but international cuisine as well. In his rigorous exposition, he leaves nothing to chance.
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Artusi, instead 'gives complete freedom to the cook in his recipe book, and by doing so he foresaw the current tendency of the present era which runs against the orthodoxy of classic cuisine"'' But that's just it: Is the time not yet ripe to hail freedom and even individual whims as signs of a much needed and long-awaited culinary emancipation?
In other words, does this newly conceived latitude, of which many "Artusian" recipes are a testimony, not encourage the very assumption and display of responsibilities that strict obedience to blueprints no matter how perfect would in fact discourage? In the recipe for pasticcio di maccheroni meat and macaroni pie; recipe the ultimate implications of Artusi's softer, less obsessive, and, in this case, mirthful approach cannot go underestimated: The more precisely cooks can control their equipment, the freer they will be to improvise, to add personal touches, and to rely on established and codified experience merely as an inspiring point of departure.
When basic procedures can be repeated with a minimal margin of error, even culinary "transgressions" are welcomed as the sign of a need to explore the realm of the possible, that kingdom of temerity and risk, situated just opposite the land of the plausible.
In this inspirational territory ideologies and manifestos do not qualify as devices to shore. The implication in Scienza in cucina is that, while a rather mediocre kind of pleasure can be derived by confining oneself to the laws of calculability, real fulfillment implies a ravaging of the certainties that have enabled the process in the first place.
Sapience and savoring are once again connected in Artusi's book. Much has been written about a title that would seem to imply that the cognitive advantages of scienza belong with the making of food, while those of arte refer to its appreciation and consumption.
In reality their coming together is a marriage of convenience. While Artusi may not have the confident air of superiority of a true man of science or the divine inspiration of the artistic genius, he shares with the first the dominant ideology that reason and science can provide certain and lasting answers to any problem, physical or metaphysical, and with the second the reliance on techniques and the training of the imagination.
Citizen of a century filled with books singing the praises of "physiology" dozens by Mantegazza alone , dating back to Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's trail-blazing Physiologic du gout , Artusi was in no position to ignore the temptation to secure his culinary edifice on a clearly marked positivist foundation.
The debt Scienza in cucina owes to this philosophical school, however, does not extend much beyond lip service, except perhaps in the area of social problems, where a modicum of rationality has never done any harm anyway. The Artusian notion of art, on the other hand, while not antagonistic to that of science, is akin to that of techne - of ability, or skill obtained and surpassed by observing masters at work.
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They can be encapsulated as follows: While seemingly swarming with "mothers, sisters and servant girls" whose "culinary wisdom" the author neither shuns nor ridicules, Artusi's kitchen is in fact the ideal training ground of those sorcerer's apprentices who, having studied statistics, prefer to be guided by the empirical wisdom of their palates, and by the notion that while taste is doubtless one of the senses nature bestows upon all her children, a taste for food is a "knowledge" one develops through a strategy of instinctual perceptions.
It is safe to assume that, in Artusi's title, science and art are to be entered as chiastic members of same basic linguistic register. In our times, Art in the Kitchen and the Science of Eating Well would be equally satisfactory; in nineteenthcentury rhetoric, this would not have been the case. Beyond these semasiological explorations, two major achievements have remained unchallenged from Artusi's times to our own: Clearly these theories did not hold taste to be a matter of culture, and anchored metabolism to a set on non-physiological observations.
While gentlemen and ladies would be harmed by the ingestion of popular and rustic food, feeding "delicate food" to bean-eating peasants would result in sickness and death. The repercussions of. A caveat to conclude: The Artusian predilection for excessive quantities of butter and lard is a myth. As is the idea that the recipes liberally deploy spices: Exaggeration, even if judged by our standards, is not really Artusi's game.
Indeed, a revealing excusatio concludes the brief preface to the book: I object to any such dishonorable imputation, for I am neither. I love the good and the beautiful wherever I find them, and hate to see anyone squander, as they say, God's bounty. They show beyond any doubt that consulting Scienza in cucina does not automatically mean preparing for a royal banquet.
On the other hand, Claudio Moras, president of the Associazione Cuochi Romagnoli the Romagna Chefs' Association and editor of L'Artusi cent'anni dopo, argues, with good reason, that the classification of pagnottelle ripiene stuffed rolls; recipe under the heading "entremets" - that is, minor dishes to be served between main courses - may contradict eating habits on any rung of the social ladder. The caloric content of the stuffing itself, which consists in Artusi's words, "of chickpea-size chunks But, if that is the case, why not trim it and treat it as a main course?
To balance these two assessments, we may wish to turn to the endorsement of Artusi's recommendations that Emanuela Djalma Vitali proffers in her review of the celebrated Einaudi edition of. Scienza in cucina, whose author she notes, "prematurely died at the age of 91" due to an overdose of good food. This is sensorial squalor It occurs when butter a great deity among foods , lard, rendered pig cheek, and rendered lard why not?
You cannot live to be almost one hundred if you allow yourself to be ground up by nutritional whims, by fears of lipids and cholesterol. These are diseases of the soul. The French are a little better. But from either, the very most you will glean are a few notions, useful only if you already know the art". The second edition brought the number to , the third added 19 new recipes, the fifth 35, the sixth 25, the eighth 15, the tenth 15, the eleventh 8, the twelfth 88, the thirteenth Artusi's death, which occurred on 30 March , ensured that this figure would not increase further.
In the beginning books were sold directly by the author. As late as they were sold by R. Bemporad e Figlio as well as by the estate of Pellegrino Artusi. In fact, the same kind of information was avialable on the front cover of the editions issued by Landi.
It would also seem to bear the "imprint" of the author's churlish style. The few exceptions include Machiavelli, whose name stands, quite mistakenly, for political cunning and even treachery; and Casanova, of course, whose name now has a mildly obscene connotation. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from the Italian are mine.
This edition, to which they had legal rights, was then reissued for a good number of years. Davide Paolini Milan: The title page informs us that this "most famous cookbook" has been "revisited by five great chefs: See L'Artusi cent'anni dopo Artusi, one hundred years later Bertinoro: Tipolitografia Ge. Graf, Prior to these centennial "reformulations," in Luigi Volpicelli had authored a much quoted preface to a luxury edition of Scienza in cucina, featuring a valuable "panorama della cucina italiana nei secoli" panorama of Italian cooking through the centuries , while in a dietetically conscientious Irene Bosco brought forth a "selected and reduced" Nuovo Artusi.
In the early s he published the vernacular writings of Giulio Cesare Croce, a sixteenth-century Bolognese author. This was a prelude to a series of original studies dealing with topics such as blood, milk, sex, hunger, and the Italian landscape.
Some of his titles are La came impassibile , La via del latte , and Le belle contrade Prior American editions of Science in. Some are abridged, and many have simply misunderstood the original Artusi, who was not a Tuscan, chose to flavor his Italian with expressions from that a true Tuscan would have perhaps avoided, ultimately complicating a translator's task.
Worst of all, they have not paid due attention to the things that make this book exceptional: In editing out most of these jewels, they have, regrettably, transformed a classic into a poorly translated cookbook. Needless to say, ours is not a perfect edition either. We apologize for any mistakes on our part, and would be very grateful to any readers who can bring them to our attention.
In the true spirit of Artusi, we will incorporate plausible suggestions in all future editions. Einaudi, , lix. Laterza, , Tullio De Mauro writes that in a meager 2. Although this figure increased dramatically in the following decades - thanks, primarily, to the enforcement of compulsory elementary education results were not as encouraging as they could have been. Writing in , Camillo Corradini, reported that the structure for the dissemination of literacy resembled more closely that of a chain for the distribution of "luxury items," depending as it did on the revenues of individual municipal administration that were, by and large, indirectly proportional to the seriousness of the problem.
See, in particular, De Mauro, Storia linguistica, Cucina bricconcella, Bruce Penman London: Penguin Books, , But for that matter, almost all culinary terms are either strange or ridiculous" p. The active presence of pie, at the root of paio, should not go unnoted. It may give us a hint of the Anglo-Tuscan language spoken in Florence in the late nineteenth century.
Olschky, The passage quoted here is on page Some scholars, first among them Pio Rajna in , have doubted the paternity of this essay. Their arguments are carefully summarized by Castellani Polidori in the first chapter of the book As a poet, he wrote under the pseudonym Lorenzo Stecchetti. Capricious to the point of eccentricity, [Guerrini] was indeed Artusi's kindred spirit, and his personal friend.
In a time when everyone could feel the. Olindo Guerrini fashioned a work that could also be read as a completion of Artusi. L'arte di utilizzare gli avanzi delta mensa The art of using table leftovers covers average to below-average, middle-class, economical, and frugal cuisine.
Much attention is paid to techniques for savings, which, certainly not overlooked by Artusi, found in Stecchetti's pages their most suitable dwelling. Hill, Nevertheless it is in that cultural environment that the notion of "dinner party" takes shape.
In Martino's manual, next to the measurements a great novelty in and of themselves , the cook always indicates the number of people varying from 8 to 12 for whom a given recipe has been conceived.
He writes: The formulas and titles were often modified, revised or changed by the author. As a result they blossomed once again thanks to the skillful manipulation of the author who exhorted his readers not to trust 'the books that deal with the subject' because 'they are for the most part fallacious or incomprehensible, especially the Italian books.
Emphasis added. For Artusi, the lightness of food was a constant concern. A year before his demise, he added the appendix "Foods for Weak Stomachs" to the text of the fourteenth edition. The author, identified only as L. Giancarlo Roversi "Pellegrino Artusi a Bologna", in Cucina bricconcella, emphasizes the familiarity Artusi must have had with such Bolognese annual publications as La serva ammaestrata dal cuoco piemontese A maidservant trained by the Piedmontese cook and La cuciniera The female cook , aimed explicitly at teaching housekeepers and domestic cooks how to please their masters and mistresses "and to avoid extravagant expenses.
Artusi is jovial and patient most but not all of the time.
He can even be rather curt, as he undoubtedly is in the opening lines of his recipe for ciambelline little rings; recipe I will try to describe it, but I cannot guarantee you will understand me" p. Cassa Rurale e Artigiana, , To the endearing formal traits that characterize many of his recipes, we should add the "lighter touch" Artusi exhibited in the description of actual, often brutal, culinary actions.
In the words of Piero Camporesi, "drawing upon an humeur culinaire unknown to professional cooks Naturally he could not abolish them completely because they are an integral part of this 'science' that falls back daily into an unredeemable orignal sin.
Artusi was perhaps satisfied with his expostulations about chicken and capon and in all likelihood felt that his readers could draw from there the guidance they would need to cook those birds.
II by a totally incompetent cook, a quotation from Homer, and the recipe itself. See pp. It is somewhat heavy perhaps because the climate requires it, but it also succulent, tasty and healthy. This may explain why in Bologna a life span of 80 or 90 is more common than elsewhere" p. It is in Bologna, furthermore, that Artusi dreamed of founding an institute "to train young women to be cooks, for they are naturally more economical and less wasteful than men.
These women would then be easy to employ, and would possess an art which, when brought into middleclass households, would serve as a medecine against the frequent quarrels that occur in families as a result of bad dining" p.
All this, and more, in the recipe for tortellini alia Bolognese tortellini Bolognese style; recipe 9. Two of them - Vita di Ugo Foscolo Life of Ugo Foscolo, Osservazioni in appendice a trenta lettere di Giuseppe Giusti Marginal remarks on 30 letters by Giuseppe Giusti, - met with no success whatsoever but are occasionally mentioned by his biographers. That task fell to his faithful servants, Marietta Sabatini and Francesco Ruffili , who painstakingly worked on all the recipes that eventually made it into his seminal publication.
The imprecision in his recipes may well reflect his lack of hands-on cooking knowledge. A cursory glance at his recipe compendium confirms that Sicily only gets token treatment and there is virtually nothing to represent Sardinia and the Mezzogiorno south of Naples. When he does document dishes outside Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna he is not shy either about disguising his biases against certain local culinary specialties.
Much of the population subsisted on a poorly balanced diet. His narrow class outlook and apparent indifference to the undernourished rural poor have therefore been criticised too. Few, however, would dispute the personal charm of the man.
A true eccentric, Artusi had no qualms about wearing his huge mutton-chop whiskers, frock coat and top hat long after they had gone out of fashion. His book is peppered with witty, self-deprecating jokes and a refusal to take himself and the cookbook genre too seriously. Artusi was generous too. Future book royalties went to Marietta and Francesco, his servants. It would be best, therefore, to describe it as a reflection of what people aspired to eat during that period.
His book provided the young nation with a template for a national cuisine and a language of food and cookery terms to communicate in. He was also instrumental in giving a voice to the previously hidden culinary knowledge of women and home cooks. Italians have a lot to thank him for. Stay tuned in the next month as I share a couple of recipes from this monumental Italian cookbook.Here, Pellegrino began working in finances, and he also dedicated his time to two of his favorite hobbies: literature and the art of cooking.
Four hundred, and fifty people were wounded and eight hundred arrested. For instance, a cook from a town in Romagna wrote to me: 'I prepared the blood pudding described in your highly esteemed cookbook for my employers. Laterza, , Tullio De Mauro writes that in a meager 2. We are not in France, where at the end of the s August Escoffier published his Guide culinaire, which delved not only into the ambit of French cuisine but international cuisine as well.
Italians have a lot to thank him for. At times his recipes read like answers to queries gleaned from the columns of a daily paper: These texts, long buried on the shelves of inaccessible libraries, brought to light for the first time the early tangible signs of a gastronomic culture that would peak in the mature decades of the Renaissance.
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